Chapter 22




By G. Urinsky


(Zionism and Socialism)


We do not have very precise data about intellectual movements in our city. Memoirs of the first illuminists were not conserved. There were few subscribers to the periodicals, such as Ha'maguid, Ha'shachar and later Ha'meilitz and Ha'tzifa. Some Jews read Russian-Jewish magazines and newspapers in Russian. In the literature of years 1860 and 1870 of the last century, two writers, NICOLAI PRUZHANKSY and SEMION IZAKOVITCH RAPAPORT(1), were highlighted in Pruzhany. In those times some families in Pruzhany gave their children a European education.


First Zionist movements


The Chibad Zion (lovers of Zion)2 movement, that attracted an important number of youth, had an important influence in the city. The organization Chovevei Zion (sympathetic with Zion) was founded in the 1880ís of last century. Within the Chovevei Zion group it was designated as a representative to the Odessa Committee. An annual fee3 was assessed on the members.On the eve of Yom Kippur moneyboxes were placed in Batei Midrashim (religious studies houses) and money was collected for settling in Eretz Israel. From time to time they met in Assemblies. The group of Chovevei Zion had antagonistic encounters with older generation.It was the religious who faced the youths who wanted to accelerate redemption. For this reason, in the first stage they met in secret in Mount Samuha, on the road toward Subitsh (this mountain was cut in during the 1890s), or in the intimacy of the house of some of the members.


With the coming of Hertzl's Zionist politics, the movement began to enlarge its influence, since it attracted young middle class people, intellectuals and workers who read Zionist magazines and booklets in Yddish. They also read YUD and Jewish Popular Pages.Zionist intellectuals of other places arrived, settled in our city, and became leaders of the movement. They distributed Shekalim (TN: name of Israel currency now) and they sold certificates of the Colonial Jewish Bank.


The movement began to disclose to the general public the Zionist thought, and for this purpose every Saturday they organized allusive readings. They read Gretz in Yddish, and they held conferences on Jewish history. They did not have many opponents except among the older generation, the religious extremists, and the political Zionists (see later). They attracted the young and middle-aged generations and a small percentage of workers (Zionist organized, that amounted to about twenty).They were under the romantic influence of Herzl's Zionism, and believed convincingly in near future of redemption. Zionist speakers, professional spreaders, and middle class Jews that were Zionist began to arrive to Pruzhany.††


From time to time others that were against Zionism, the maguidim visited the city. They incredulously criticized Zionists, and rejected the belief in the coming of the Messiah4. The fight of older generation ceased after the great fire of 1899, which set on fire half of the city. They, the proprietors, were in charge of reconstructing their housings.††

In year 1900, a youth organization with the name of Pirchei Zion (Zion Youth) was founded.They were in charge of raising money for Zionist objectives; they also founded the Poor Class Group. In the year 1903 an organization composed only of males called Tzirei Zion (Youth of Zion) was founded and they were in charge of spreading the Zionist idea among youth.


First Socialist movements


The first echoes about socialist and revolutionary thought arrived to Pruzhany at the beginning of the XX century, and began to expand among urban residents. There was already youth in Pruzhany that had received European instruction. They studied in the big cities, were familiar with socialist ideas, and had a great influence on other youth belonging to the Pirchei Zion group who felt themselves socialist and sympathizers of Yzkra. Also workers of Pruzhany began to be organized to fight for better work conditions. At the beginning of 1902, some hard-working youths who were in big cities like Warsaw, Wilna and Lodz began to return to Pruzhany. These youths summoned all workers of Pruzhany to an Assembly, urging them to not work more than 12 hours a day.


The Assembly decided it this way. Applications of wage increases were not presented. The decisions of a working day of 12 hours were implemented this way: groups, consisting of several people that inspected shops, were formed. They forced workers who worked more of 12 hours, to leave. This happened because of an event on the eve of Pesach, when the workers used to work from 16 to 18 hours a day. This history had a great resonance in the city, among the workers and among the proprietors.


It was rumored that fraternities, such as those formed in the big cities5, had been formed in Pruzhany. This name was institutionalized among citizens, and later members of socialist organizations were denominated in this way. A little later workers of the Bund organization and the Russian Social Democratic party, arrived in Pruzhany. They expanded socialist and revolutionary ideas among workers of Pruzhany6. A relationship was created between socialist intellectual youths and the workers; relationships were created with Bund organization in Brest, where illegal revolutionary literature was obtained. The Bund organization was then founded in Pruzhany. There were organized circles, where outstanding friends read and explained revolutionary illegal literature. A library was founded that contained legal Jewish books that members could take to their homes. They taught illiterate workers to read and write in Yddish. From time to time very important Assemblies in Mount Llache were organized.


Zionism and Socialism


In year 1904, the group Tzeirei Zion (young of Zion) was influenced by new ideas brought by a new member, a more radical Worker-Zionist approach with socialist coloring. Through their radical influence, the group changed its name to Kadima. With this new name, the Zionist intellectual groups, whose programs established an analogy between Zionism and Socialism, began to work. In Rozshinoi, that at the time was a nearby town whose laborers had certain occupations, especially weavers, a Zionist workers organization existed. After some months of existence, the Kadima organization reconstituted itself as a Zionist workers' organization under the name of Poalei Zion (workers of Zion). Workers, as a group, constituted a majority in this organization.


In the winter 1904, circles were organized that met at private homes; most were rented for some Kopikes a night. They carried out important Assemblies in the groves of Liache and Sementshier. A library was established with Jewish books (most gathered from friends and sympathizers); also organized were illiterate workers' groups who were taught to read and write.A contact with the cities of Rozshinoi and Slonim was established. From time in time, propaganda and pamphlets arrived, but the Party theories and ideas were transmitted in personal and oral forms.Therefore in each place there were important disclaimers. During one winter, the Pruzhany organizationís future was discussed particularly if they would continue in the new orientation of fighters or that of non-fighters.


Finally the victory was for the tendency of fighters who joined up with those of Slonim who also belonged to the same ideological thinking. In the summer of 1905, representatives of Pruzhany traveled to Rozshinoi and obtained the declaration for the Pruzhany organization that all the organizations Poalei Zion should be united in fighting for the territorial and socialist program, with the name of Zionist Socialists7.


The events of January 9 1905 - that echoed in all of Russia -, also rebounded in Pruzhany. In the course of the winter many members were added to the Bund and among Zionist socialists.May 1 1905 big Assemblies of both parties celebrated in the groves of Liache and Semenshie. The Assembly of the Bund in the Liache forest failed. Police headed by the Highest Official arrived, so they had to behave correctly. After negotiating for the detainees whose names were registered, the police rounded them up and drove them into the city. Later, participants received a fine of 5 rubles or three days of arrest from the governor of Grodno. The police had the revolutionaries, and they did not want to fight against them (during the winter a terrorist act against police was carried out, and they sprayed its Head Officer with vitriol)


Bialistok speakers for the two big organizations arrived frequently enough, and they carried out big Assemblies in the forests. The Bund was tied with its branch in Bialistok through Brest, and the Zionist socialists through Slonim. Professionals, intellectuals and workers in both organizations settled in Pruzhany. During that summer both organizations carried out political and economic strikes and they got salary increases and settled upon the rule of 10 hours of work per day. Political organizations drove economic actions. In the summer of 1905 the number of members in each organization increased. The makeup of each one was the following: Bund members numbered 70 to 80 and followers more than 300. The S~S members numbered 40 to 50 and followers 150.


The average people in the Bund were proletarian; the average people in the S~S were middle class; both had a majority of youths 16 to 21 years of age. The constitution of the organization was the following:members voted for the Committee, and a letter with elected names was given to a person called the open representative. The open representative announced the names of the Committee members who were chosen. He also was the laison between Committee and Organization. Other members were not told who constituted the Committee. This procedure was developed using the conspiracy principle, and it was formally respected. The organizationís members meetings were held in a place called The Purse. Its headquarters were in Pacevitz St. (now called Neguidish), beginning in the building of the Municipality and finishing in the fence of Gubernia property. Bundists took their place on the left coming from the bridge, and the S~S to the right beside the white jail. From the evening and until late hours in the night, these places were filled with people walking, generally in groups, to listen the word of their leaders.††


Relations between Bund and S~S members were tense. Constant discussions happened about territorialism and proletarianism. They frequently ended in fights. In the course of the summer, at an appropriate opportunity, the Bund declared a political character strike and forced merchants to close their businesses. One week later the S~S also declared a general strike of political character in the city. Both organizations bothered each other, when they carried out political activities.††


The biggest tension among them was with regard to the following episode: the Bund sent, at the beginning of August, an ultimatum to the committee of the S~S that in so many days they must abandon the space that they occupied in the Purse and move to Postshove St (May 3rd). The Bund based its demand on that fact that a woman leader was attracting the Bundists en mass to the lines of the S~S, and that interfered in their activities. The S~S didn't agree with this and once, when the woman leader was attacked, a fight broke out between Bund and S~S.The police tried to prevent the fight and, taking advantage of the opportunity, attacked both groups, killing many with its sabers.†††


The S~S feared that the Bundís aggression, knowing that its organization was smaller and weaker, would be repeated the following day. That same night they sent a messenger to Rozshinoi who brought back weapons for their defense in case of an eventual attack. No more fights occurred. Everyone calmed down, and the two groups remained in their places in the Purse. Saturdays was another Purse event in the Yard, beside teacher seminars. There was a garden, in which fruits and milky products were sold. Every Saturday public discussions took place between both groups.

We have been able to obtain the following documents, relating to the year 1905 that came from the Grodno Governor Archives. They are reports from NABOKOV, an official, to the Grodno Governor. They state the following:


"Secrete. To His Excellency, the Grodno Governor, from the Head of the Pruzhany district.

Report. Recent strikes and demonstrations of July 11th in the city of Pruzhany and in the towns of Kartuz Bereza, Shereshev and Malch, could not be stopped due to lack of military help, in the aforementioned towns and in the whole area in general. Police Officials when being dispersed to the whole area, could not meet together in a suitable place, and their scarce numbers did not allow them to demonstrate their energetic influence on the crowd in cases of unrest. Rumors were spread among the peasant population and in many villages and this would cause problems.


There were also conflicts between peasants and nobility that were not important in the past but from now on could become serious agrarian disturbances. For the above-mentioned reasons, I request to His Excellency, military help inside the area that was given me to govern. It would be desirable to have a military base in Pruzhany, Kartuz Bereza and Shereshev, with the condition that these bodies can act in the event of necessity, and to send more of a force to the above-mentioned towns. It is my duty to inform His Excellency that at the same time that the regiment 151 of Infantry Piatigar was in Kartuz Bereza and Brigade 38 was near Pruzhany in Michaelov. It was transferred to the district of Lomzshe, and in this way I lost the possibility to request help from the military forces. The population of the circuit, especially Jewish youth, knowing that the police cannot receive military help, would not lose the opportunity to take advantage of the situation. Signed: Military Chief NABOKOV, No. 205, Julio 12, 1905, Pruzhany"


Attached to this report is the list of rebels.


(A great number of them were included by mistake or chance).




1.      BERGER Irmiahu Movshov

2.      ROTKOP Rachmiel

3.      SERLIN Yankel

4.      WALDMAN Osher Meierov

5.      SUSELEVITSH Michel Velvelov

6.      GARBER Gershon Movshov

7.      NOMBERG Itzhok Ioselev

8.      NITZBERG Isser

9.      ENUSH Yankel Avnerov

10.  GARBATY Ephraim Elev

11.  KATZ Mordechai Fraimov

12.  FAYN Moishe Michelev

13.  BLIACHER Yosel Fraimov

14.  RONIS Shmuel Movsev

15.  URIEVITSH Berko Shimhov


17.  AVERBUCH Moishe


19.  PRIBLULSKY Mendel

20.  FAYN Yosel Michelev




21.  ROZENFELD Moishe Itzkov

22.  GOLDBERG Aronov Shliamov

23.  RABINOVICH Hersh Biniaminov

24.  NITZBERG Lipe Zundelev

25.  BOM Bentzion Aronov Davidov

26.  NITZBERG Moishe Zundelev

27.  GOLDBERG Shimon Naftaliev

28.  FRYDMAN Zunie Abramov

29.  DUBINA Avrom Itzhak Zabelev

30.  POMERANIETZ Sara Yankeleva

31.  GHERSHO Chaia Itzkovna

32.  ZAMUCHAVSKY, Pearl Nachimova

33.  LIBERSHTEIN Mavshe Heshkov

34.  SHEINBOIM Chaim Hersch Yankelev

35.  TREGER Avrom Leib

36.  LIBERMAN Chaia Shimeleva

37.  ILEVITZKY Michel Meierov




38.  ROZENTAL Chaim Baruchov

39.  LEW Itzhok Aizik

40.  ZINGMAN Hershel Ansehlov

41.  LINEVSKY Zundel Mavshev

42.  KRUMAN Yosel

43.  VAFINSHTEIN Moishe Aizokov

44.  BREMERMordechai Davidov

45.  KRUMANFishel Guetzelev

46.  SINGER Biniomin Chaimov

47.  GUTERMAN Israel

48.  KAUBKOIPHAaron Zelmanov

49.  MAISTER Chaim Shmulev

50.  GAUCHMAN Yosel Fraimov

51.  CHANKOVSKY Elchana Shaiev

52.  YUDELEVSKY, Moishe Beinshov


Signature: Chief NABOKOV"


"Secret: To His Excellency Grodno Governor, from Pruzhany District Head. Report. I add to my July 12 report under No. 199 and I say that together with the list of names of people who were authors of July 11 disturbances, there were also the following agitators. VASSILY POMOV MIKOS, a local landowner's son who finishes the state school in Pruzhany this year; the student of the school NIKOLAI SILVERTEROV GANTSHARKO and the peasants: CHAIM MEIEROV KUPLINSKY, AARON NACHMENOV SHPANIN, TOIBE MESHENGUISER, LEA MESHENGUISER AND MIRIAM MESENGHISER. These people developed their activity in Pruzhany. SHPANIN, BERGER and ROTKOIP were the leaders. According to the determination of past District Chief report of April 25 under No. 40, these people were sanctioned, and most of them nominated in the list of the report of July 12 with No. 199. In Kartuz Bereza the following persons were in front of the crowd and encouraged its activity: the peasants of Pruzhany Ury Abelev TABULITZKY and Leizar PINES and the inhabitant of Bereza Avrom Itzhok Movshev ZAVELEVITSH. The two first mentioned came especially to Bereza and during the evening returned to their city. On the night of July 11/12 strangers on the route through the town fired two shots near the station Pogodine that were heard in Kartuz Bereza. The bullets hit the guards of the Infantry Regiment 196 called Zazlav who were in the barracks. KINGFISHER IVANOV CHARION, ABDULLAH ABDULIN and PROKOV PLUSHNIKOV were the wounded soldiers. As consequence of this action a report was sent to the investigation judge of First District of Pruzhany, and the local Procurator. Signed NABOKOV was also informed".


"Secrete: To His Excellency Grodno Governor from the Pruzhany District Head.

Report. I inform His Excellency that in a low quality tobacco industry in Pruzhany belonging to Yosel Pomeranietz, on July 17 at 11 o'clock a.m., nine of 15 workers went out to eat lunch and did not return to work. The same day six male workers continued to work and on July 18 at 4 p.m. they left their work place and did not return to the factory. The owner of the factory informed me that the women workers demanded a wage increase of 50% and therefore Pomeranietz closed his factory for a while. The strikers made no disturbances. To clarify the cause, an investigation began to determine if there were people that encouraged the workers go on strike. About other events that could happen in the future, I will inform to His Excellency. Head NABOKOV, No. 216, April 19, 1905."


All these documents are type written. They are registered with Entrance Number Grodno Governor. There are also illegible handwritings in the report. In some parts of the reports are underlined in color, seemingly by the Governor.


In October 1905, the revolutionary wave hit the country hard.The first railroad strike was carried out and later the Czarist Manifesto of October appeared. Soon the news arrived in Pruzhany. On Thursdayís fair day the Bund immediately organized demonstrations with flags and big banners both in Yddish and in Russian. The police set up a human chain around the fair. They withdrew when the demonstrators arrived. A tumult broke out among peasants who arrived at the fair, and they immediately escaped with their cars, and cleared the street


The S~S group were not able to organize their demonstration on Thursday, and carried it out with great success on Saturday. The same day, during the morning, members of the Small Bund8, in which some dozens of young people participated, carried out another demonstration with flags and big banners. They passed Neguidish St. (Patzevich) peacefully and during whole itinerary they proclaimed revolutionary expressions, and sang a revolutionary hymn called The Oath and other revolutionary songs.The S~S demonstration lasted several hours, and went through all streets. In each place in which there was a police commission, they stopped and talked about their revolutionary objectives. They also carried flags and banners. The police did not intervene at all in this demonstration that almost the whole town attended. They marched and they were not bothered by the Bund as the S~S were surrounded by armed militiamen.


Information about pogroms against Jews organized by the czarist government in several places in Russia arrived in Pruzhany.That created a feeling of uneasiness in the Jewish population. It was the rumored that different human beings, hooligans, encouraged the peasants to also make pogroms. At the same time there were deliberate revolutionaries among the peasants of nearby villages, and Jewish socialists organizations were in contact with a few of them.9A decision to create a self-defense organization, integrated by both organizations was made. There was an insufficient amount of weapons, and for this reason, funds to buy weapons were raised in the city among the richer proprietors. The fund raising was both voluntary and obligatory. It made the amount of funds raised larger with the result that a larger quantity of defense weapons could be bought.


During fair days members of the self-defense group met in different places in the city and were ready to act. The self-defense forces were organized in groups. Each group was had a leader. A committee composed of representatives of both organizations was the exercising authority. They had no intention of making a pogrom in Pruzhany, and anti Jewish manifestations were not seen.


At beginning of November, at the time of the great yearly market, it was feared that something could happen in the near town Malch. The self-defenders of Pruzhany sent some armed members there, and together with local organizations of the Bund and the S~S, they avoided a pogrom. People of Color appeared at the annual fair, who appearance and possible objective created fear. They began to instigate the peasants and encouraged them to rob and pillage the Jews. Then an inhabitant of Pruzhany, a member of self-defense, stood on a peasant's car, and announced that, if anybody tried to assault a Jew, he would throw a bomb, pointing out a package he had in his hands. The organization didn't have bombs but the terrified peasants ran away from the town.[1]0


After the October 17th manifesto, disillusion within the country strengthened the desire among revolutionaries to fight, and they got ready for a rebellion. Each organization searched for the means to buy weapons. The S~S organization of Pruzhany decided to collect funds in the following way. By the end of November the District Commission carried out a bid to grant the lease of a field to the inhabitants of Pruzhany. The organization decided that its representatives would not travel to Grodno and they made a deal to accept the lease with a contractor. With the certainty of not having competitors, the price was lower, and resulted in a savings of 2000 to 3000 rubles over the normal price.That savings was received by the organization. They sent three representatives with the contractor to Grodno, and indeed they got the lease at the lesser price. This happened very close to the second rail strike and Moscowís unfruitful rebellion in December. The Populace reacted and protested so the authorities, with a wave of repression, annulled the bid.


During autumn meetings were carried out almost every night. In Batei Midrahim (Jewish religious studies academies) frequently there were discussions between Bund and S~S, and later included the S~R.The discussions that lasted almost the entire night; nobody tried to bother them.


Towards the end of summer 1905, rumors about anarchistsí ideas arrived in Pruzhany through Rozshinoi and Bialistok. An inhabitant of Rozshinoi (ANSHEL) of S~S tried to found a communist anarchist group. The group did not last long because they admitted young maximalists. Jewish youths of Pruzhany11 and peasants of near villages belonged to this group, especially those from the village of Sheny. The young S~R maximalists recognized the terror that existed in governmental institutions, and the possibility of their expropriation of private property.


During September the Grodno Governor1[2] arrived in Pruzhany, and during a feast that the Jewish elite prepared in the Big Synagogue, the Governor praised the Pruzhany Jews because they were not, what in Russia were called, Kromolnikes (police who had falsified information). The young S~R maximalists decided to answer the Governor for his praises by carrying out an expropriation of a governmental business which produced alcoholic drinks in the village of Kotre and stealing some hundreds of rubles. With the stolen money they paid an instructor, and with explosive material they prepared bombs. One evening they threw a bomb at the police building on the main street Neguidish (in Rozenblum's house) that resulted in damages to the building and its surroundings, but did not harm any people13. The same organization carried out an attack against a higher echelon policeman, they shot him, and he was severely wounded and died after a short time.


After second rail strike, and after defeat of the December Muscovite rebellion, the police began repressions. The previous summer, a Mounted Police group that had not previously intervened in any special action, was formed. At the beginning of December they were assigned to a place in Neguidish St. and they did not allow anyone to come close to the Purse. The Purse was transferred to Seltzer St. (Dombrowka) and they sent a squadron of dragons to the city. These together with the mounted-police tossed them of there.Arrests began, the reaction strengthened and repressions increased. People began to escape and, among the labor class, a strong emigration toward America began. Many intellectuals emigrated, and a great number of them began to study and research. Anyway political tasks continued in the Bund, in S~S, and in the maximalists during year 1906.


During the Second Duma elections (elections for the First Duma were boycotted by socialists), there was activity in the Bund and in the S~S organizations. The Grodno Bund candidate was an outstanding activist, GAZSHANKSKY (LANU), and the S~S candidate was Dr. M. A. PINES BRISKMAN, who wrote the first history of Jewish literature. A meeting to choose several representatives, who could be depended upon to vote for the socialist candidate in Grodno, was carried out in Pruzhany, but it failed.14


During 1906 meetings were carried out from time in time, and the organizations sent representatives to each District conferences15. Politically legal newspapers were distributed that were called the Popular Newspaper and then the New Road. These appeared in Vilna. By middle of summer a member of Bund died, followed some weeks later by a member of S~S16. At both funerals the organizations participated with their flags, their big banners and sang revolutionary songs. At the cemetery there were revolutionary speeches, but the police did not interfere.


Little by little the leaders left the city and the organizations disbanded. The last May 1st meeting was carried out in 190717. In the later Duma elections, Jewish cadets handled the participation for the intellectuals and rich people. For all State Dumas, males among the Pruzhany population that sympathized with the cadets were elected.


The democratic youth stayed in the city. The congregated in the Urban Library, where there was a section for Jewish books. In the year 1912 some dozens of young people founded a circle18. They taught Yiddish, mathematics and Russian to young groups of workers. These circles were attended by hundreds of young people. This work lasted approximately one year.


N. A. BUCHBINDER in his book, The History of Jewish Movement in Russia, which was translated to Yddish. According to reporters of the New Road and the The Word newspapers, the list of cities where S~S organizations acted is mentioned on page 393. In this list, Pruzhany doesn't appear. In the newspaper, Our Road, No. 7 of October 31, 1907 there is a note about Pruzhany, signed by Motel POLIAK, in which describes the activities developed by the S~S organization. In the same newspaper, No. 5 of October 10, 1907 there is an obituary of a friend of Pruzhany, R. KAHANOVITSH, who was murdered near the border with Sosnievietz. His obituary was

signed by P. K. (Motel Poliak)



[1] Pruzhansky was born in the year 1847 of parents in a village near Pruzhany, . He becameChristian in St. Peterburg. Rapaport was born in 1858 in Pruzhany, of rich parents; his father was a contractor in the construction union. Inyear 1891 he emigrates to London and was collaborating constantly in Russian newspapers. His biography appears in "Hebrew Encyclopedia" (in Russian).


2 Founders were: ELIAHU URINSKY, Y. K. MOLCHADSKY, MOISHE ZILBERKWAIT, siblings GOLDBERG, etc.Siblings Goldberg settled later in Wilna, being known as Zionist activists. One of the siblings ELE GOLDBERG currently (1958) lives in Tel Aviv. The second, BORIS, was president of the Zionist Central Committee in Russia. He died in London in year 1919.


3 In the Archives of the Odessa committee, there is a list of Pruzhany members.


4 Among famous maguidim of that time, SIMCHA KAHANA had opportunities to visit us, the Hameilitz were against his visits and continually opposed his coming, and also ELIAKUM GETZEL the maguid of Brest who was accustomed to take out the Dibuk (the exorcist)


5 At the beginning they were called tzazrnikes (zaristas). In Brest Bundists were called tazar bal chaimnikes (they pity animal life. TN: A linguistic ironic play on words in Yddish)


6 SH. L. KATZ son of ZALMAN, who was a blacksmith worker was expelled from Odessa and was in Pruzhany under police surveillance, along with Y. BERGER, a printing worker of Lodz, and others


7 S ~S participated in the seventh socialist congress in Basel, they abandoned it when the Congress was considered the point on Palestinism. The members of S~S were delegates of Pruzhany, Rozshinoi and Slonim. MOISHE LITVAKOV was later editor of the periodical Omsk-Emes.


8 The Small Bund had many members who were males from 12 to 14 years-old, students of the cheder (primary private school in Yiddish). In addition some were workers. Older members of Bund didn't pay attention to their conduct; as they were independent. The Small Bund carried out tasks ordered by adults such as the transport of weapons and illegal literature. During a meeting carried out May 1 1905 some armed individuals were stopped, and due to police negligence, these adolescents were able to remove their weapons and hide them.


9 Sheny village was highlighted for its revolutionary activity; it was located 5 km. from our city, and old MIKUS there lived who had great influence on peasants. In town of Bielovietz, the population was known by its revolutionary conscience, as well as what happened to villages Suchapolie and Chvalove.


10 He was Y. Pomeranietz, from Kletne village


11 Ele VAKUNOVSKY, B, STARINSKY, Y. SERLIN, Hertzke ROZENBOIM, Alter KANOVICH, Taibel ORLANSKY, etc. belonged to this group.


12 He was General ZEHIN, and later Finland General Governor. Some time before, ZVIATOPOLKMIRSKY, Vilna General Governor and later Ministry of Internal Affairs, visited feudal Pruzhany. Rav KANTORSHTSHIK, in congratulating him, assured him that Pruzhany Jews were not Government traitors. Soon after this declaration, he sent correspondence to Ha'meilitz newspapaer


13 The following day police fenced in the streets and did not allow Jews to go through. After an appeal to the Head of the Police, this decree was annulled.


14 Elections were indirect; first they chose men who should choose deputies from among themselves. There was no candidate for Socialist deputy from the district of Grodno. GASHANSKY LANU was at that moment in Pruzhany, and participated in some political meetings.††††††††††††††††


15 In April the S~S conference in Slonim was carried out, and in September 1906 a great conference in Byalistok was carried out where Pruzhany was represented by G. Urinsky. This conference elected DANIELY CHERNICHOV as delegate to the S~S meeting in Liepzig.


16 The member of the Bund was Shlomo Serlin son of Dovid, who lived in a small town; while LeŪbir Kir, a carpenter, was a member of S-S


17 At evening, in the Big Synagogue, Motel Poliak, the member of the S~S, spoke.


18 Headed by Motel Poliak