PRUZHANY YZKOR BOOK

1958

Chapter 26

PRUZHANY IN FIRST DECADE OF POLISH DOMAIN 1921/1931

 

By  N. Tzukerman

 

1.         Population analysis

 

In course of almost two decades, when Pruzhany supported WWI and German occupation,  inhabitants in the city were not under normal conditions and its demographic growth was harmed.

 

From time of first German occupation, it is not certainty known  the quantity of city inhabitants. As it was already mentioned, in that time, there was in the city some thousand homeless . Birth rate fell strongly and mortality rate grew vastly[i]. Therefore, on one hand population decreased for quantity of deaths, and on the other hand increased great mass of homeless. This situation cannot be considered normal, and it cannot be taken into account in the process of Pruzhany  population's development.

 

Jewish population's sudden reduction begins when appear conditions to homeless to return to their previous housings, and when arise first possibilities for emigration. In this situation is our city when was carried out  first census in year 1921. The process of  Jewish population's abandonment of the city continues, when it is closed the possibility to emigrate to United States. Then is formed a great migratory flow toward Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Palestine. There grow big colonies of Pruzaners, and this situation weakens again here  Jewish population's growth . For the other side, arrives in that moment a return flow of gentiles from White Russia area that had escaped of here with retreat of Russian army, and arrived a new flow of Polish population to occupy positions as officials of  different government offices.

 

Amid this dynamic process,  was carried out the census in year 1921. According to the report of this census, there was in Pruzhany 6.332 inhabitants, of which 4.152 were Jewish, 1.460 Orthodox Russian, 716 Catholics and 4 evangelists.  

 

As it is seen in the chart, Jews composed 65.6% that is to say the 2/3 of  total population, in 2nd. place were Orthodox Russian that were 23%, and in last place Catholics with 11.3%.

 

Table Nş 1

 

Pruzhany's population according to 1921 census

 

Religion

Absolute

%

Jews[ii]

4152

65.6

Orthodox Russian

1460

23.0

Catholic

716

11.3

Evangelistas

4

0.1

Total

6332

100.0

 

 

How did population of the city grow?[iii]  How was different groups increase? On this issue we will have a panorama when we compare the quantity of inhabitants in Pruzhany in the years '70 of last century, with materials of 1921 census. 

 

Table Nş 2

Population increase in period 1873 - 1921

 

Religion

1873

1921

Growth %

 

 

Absolute

%

Absolute

%

Jews

2575

64.5

4152

65.6

61.24

Orthodox Russian

1012

25.3

1460

23.0

44,27

Catholics

404

10.1

716

11.3

77.22

Other

4

0.1

4

0.1

0.00

Total

3995

100.0

6332

100.0

58.50

 

It is deduced from table that population increased near 60%, that is to say an yearly average grow  of 12 for thousand. It was high the growth among Jews (more than 60%), and Catholics had an even bigger growth (near 80%).. Catholic population's increase doesn't only take place for natural growth, but as we already said for Polish employees flow toward the city.

 

Percentage of Orthodox Russian decreased with relationship to general population in benefit of  Catholics and  Jews, but they also had a small growth in absolute value . This growth is small as consequence that part of Russian Orthodox population had escaped from city during war and  never returned.

 

This process of growth of each Pruzhany's population group, radically changes when we take in consideration statistic of last 10 years. In that period  takes place Jewish population's strong emigration  toward distant countries, and for the other side happens a constant immigration of Polish elements. A small emigration is also noticed in White Russian population. Therefore, the percentage values of year 1931 are totally different to those of year 1921.

 

Table Nş 3

 

Pruzhany's population during year 1931(*)

 

Religion

Absolute

%

Jews

4208

55.2

Orthodox Russian

1503

19.7

Catholics

1291

16.9

Other

54

0.7

Transitory population

(all religions) (**)

570

7.5

Total

7626

100.0

 

(*)   This material was obtained from Municipality's reports

(**) In this item are counted students of Polish Teachers Seminar, Polish Manual Crafts High School, Crafts School, maids, and journeymen who live in the city temporarily.

 

In year 1931 were in Pruzhany 7.626 inhabitants. Among them 4.208 were Jews, 1.503 Orthodox Russian and 1.291 were Catholics. In this statistic we include another item: temporary inhabitants of all the religions. That quantity of temporary inhabitants is not high enough  (570) and it conforms 7.5% of whole population. Since it was included in the item of all religions, we can affirm that very few Jews entered in this item, because most of students of state school, teachers school and crafts school, were largely Catholic and some were Orthodox Russian. Very few Jews are among the journeymen and maids that is included in this item.

 

As we see in Table Nş 3, Jews conformed 55.2 % of general population, Orthodox Russian 19.7%, and  Catholics 16.9%. The percentage will change even more when we add to Catholics most of 7.5% of temporary. Then they will conform more than 20% of whole population. It is seen still clearer  due to the growth of each group for separate, when we compare growth of  whole population during last 10 years.

 

Of Table Nş 4 is deduced that whole population increases 20%, but inside this quantity are considered more than 300 students of high schools arrived of outside the city, who 10 years before they did not entered the census[iv]

 

Table Nş 4

 

Pruzhany's population growth during years 1921 – 1931

 

 

Religion

1921

1931

Growth %

Absolute

%

Absolute

%

Jews

4152

65.6

4208

55.2

1.3

Orthodox Russian

1460

23.0

1503

19.7

2.9

Catholics

716

11.3

1291

16.9

80.3

Transitory population

--

--

570

7.5

--

Other

4

1.0

54

0.7

1350.0

Total

6332

100.0

7626

100.0

20.9

 

 

If we subtract the number of students of total quantity , we obtain the following result: in year 1921 are in the city 6.332 inhabitants and in year 1.931 are 7.236 inhabitants. It means a growth of 14,2%. This small growth arises for a basic cause: Jewish population's strong emigration in that moment. 

 

If we observe Jewish population's growth, we see an outstanding phenomenon: in  10 years Jewish population hardly grew (4152 in 1921 and 4.208 in 1931, an increase of 56 people). A similar situation happened with White Russian population. In last ten years their group increase is of 43 people, that is to say in summary total growth is minimum.  

 

For the other side we see an opposite phenomenon among Poles. In same period  Polish population almost duplicated, and if to this we add some hundred students, almost it tripled. This quantity of Poles  will increase even more if we would add some hundreds Polish employees that inhabited  employees colonies which are added in administrative form[v] to  population.

 

Which was Jewish population's real growth? On this we will have a clearer idea when we compare the quantity of birth with that of deceased during mentioned decade. A more right registration we will have in years 1925/1.929, and the average will be valid for those 10 years, because in course of last 5 years didn't happen anything so that it would have radically change situation. Certainly, in last 5 years births decreased. 

 

Table Nş 5

 

Jews born in Pruzhany during years 1925 – 1929

 

Year

Birth

Boys

Girls

Total

1925

59

47

106

1926

54

33

87

1927

51

30

81

1928

52

34

86

1929

44

35

79

Total

260

179

439

 

In Table Nş 5 is seen that in this 5 years  were born in Pruzhany 260 boys and 179 girls, in total 439 children. If we add to that quantity the other 5 years, we will obtain that in 10 years they were born in Pruzhany 878 Jewish children.  

 

In same period  were 416 deaths. If we deduct the quantity of deceases of the quantity of birth, we obtain that Jewish population should have increased in 462 souls in those 10 years, an average of 11 for thousand yearly. If we compare how was real growth of the period, we see that almost all 462 Jews increase,  looked for other possibilities of life outside of the limits of city in course of this time[vi]

 

In that period the city of Pruzhany sent human beings to other new Jewish settlement in other parts of the world, as the Hydro that conforms new individuals, but she continues existing without reducing its size. 

 

As we said in Table Nş 5, in  last years were born among Jews more boys than girls. The difference is even stronger in first years. This imbalance of boys with regard to girls, is not observed when one thinks of the relationship between the population of men and women in Pruzhany.

 

Table Nş 6

 

Men and women in Pruzhany in 1931(*)

 

Religion

Men

%

Women

%

Total

Jews

2006

47.7

2202

52.3

4208

Orthodox Russian

724

48.9

779

51.1

1503

Catholics

677

52.4

614

47.6

1291

Other

28

51.9

26

48.1

54

Total

3435

48.6

3621

51.4

7056

 

(*) In this table are not included temporary inhabitants

 

At the moment, there are in Pruzhany more women that men, but this excess of women is not same in all  groups (Table 6). In general there are in Pruzhany 48.6% of males and 51.4% of women. Temporary inhabitants don't enter in this calculation, because it is an element in constant movement and it is very difficult to include them in the Table.  

 

It is still bigger the excess of women over men among Jews. There are 2006 men and 2.202 women, and last gender is 52.3%. The cause of the excess, is due to that many men of Jewish families emigrated. The same thing happens with population of Orthodox Russian, where the percentage of the women is still higher than the percentage of men. The cause is either strong emigration inside the country toward - for example - lumber works, or outside of the country.

  

This explains the quantity of families in which lacks the man that maintains home, and the quantity of families where woman lacks. On 180 Jewish families that only have the father or the mother in home, they are 150 women without husbands and 30 men without wives. With regard to this 30, they are largely families in those wives died. With regard to the 150 families without husbands, they are largely families whose husbands are not here. It is not very clear how many of 150 are widows, and how many have their husbands outside the city. For sure quantity of widows is higher than quantity of widowers, simply for that last ones in their majority married for second time, and among women widows are less frequent cases of a second marriage. Among the last ones, also, they are a great part whose husbands were murdered or missing in WWI.[vii] 

 

A phenomenon contrary to Jews and Orthodox Russian, is observed among Catholics. Here the proportion of men is of 52.4% and of women is of 47.6%. It is different the excess of men with regard to women in  Polish population, and this arises because most of employees that arrived are men, and therefore the quantity of men is higher. It will be very interesting to compare how changed the proportion between men and women in last 50 years. 

 

Table Nş  7

 

Comparison  of percentage of men and women in Pruzhany

in years 1873 / 1921/ 1931

 

Religion

1873

1921

1931

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Jews

43.5

56.5

 

 

47.7

52.3

Orthodox Russian

51.2

48.8

 

 

48.9

51.1

Catholics

44.8

55.2

 

 

52.4

47.6

Average

45.5

54.5

46.2

53.8

48.6

51.4

 

 

In  year 1873 general proportion between men and women was 45.5 to 54.5. In 1921 of 46.2 to 53.8, and in 1931 it was  48.6 to 51.4. Of  mentioned relationships, appears clearly that there was a tendency of certain balance between men and women.

 

Before anything, changed  diametrically proportion between men and women among Catholics and Russian Orthodox. In year 1873, the percentage of men was higher among Orthodox Russian (51.2% men, 48.8% women). In 1931 we see Catholics in the first place. The cause of this change, as we already mentioned, was for the quantity of employees that  came from outside the city, who in their majority were men. For such a reason, it is clear that in year 1873 during Russian domain,  quantity of Orthodox Russian employees was higher, and for it the percentage of men was so high.

 

It is characteristic to remember size of family group of Jews, Russian Orthodox and Catholic. The general opinion was that Jewish families had more children than their near neighbors. The materials on family situation of the population of Pruzhany don't demonstrate it.

 

How is this explained? First, let us see statistic. In informative bulletins of where was picked up this statistic, the 18 year-old youths were registered as independent families[viii]. This shows a false image on the true family situation in our city. But this form of registering is characteristic to all religions, and if we want to know the true family situation we should distribute unique member's families among other families, (Tables 8, 9 and 10).

 

Table Nş 8

 

 Family situation in Jewish population in year 1931

 

Members per family

Amount of families

Amount of persons

%

1(*)

463

463

33.0

2

237

474

16.8

3

200

600

14.2

4

196

784

13.9

5

137

685

9.6

6

107

642

7.6

7

43

301

3.0

8

21

168

1.4

9

4

36

0.2

10

1

10

0.1

11

2

22

0.1

Orphan houses

1

23

0.1

Total

1412

4208

100.0

 

( Average persons per family =  3)

 

(*) In this category are included among others, youth over 18 even they live with parents

.

Table Nş 9

 

Family situation of Catholic population in year 1931

 

Members per family

Amount of

families

Amount of

persons

%

1

170

170

73.7

2

79

158

17.5

3

53

174

13.0

4

62

248

13.8

5

42

210

9.3

6

21

126

4.7

7

10

70

2.2

8

4

32

0.9

9

3

27

0.7

Orphan houses

1

76

0.2

Total

450

1291

100.0

 

 

( Average persons per family 2.9 members)

 

 

Table Nş 10

 

Family situation of Russian Orthodox population in year  1931

 

Members per family

Amount of

families

Amount of

de persons

%

1

259

259

43.2

2

100

200

16.7

3

87

261

14.5

4

62

248

10.4

5

44

220

7.3

6

29

174

4.9

7

8

56

1.3

8

6

48

1.0

9

3

27

0.5

10

1

10

0.2

Total

599

1503

100.0

 

(Average per family 2.5 members)

 

If we observe family situation according to mentioned Tables, we see that  average of Jewish family is the higher (3 people); minor among Catholics (2.9) and less still among Orthodox Russian. If unique member's families were not included, the average would be much higher. The difference among three groups is minimum. This demonstrates that  Jews don't overcome quantity of children compared with their neighbors.

Without counting unique member's families, results that among Jews biggest quantity of families has 2 members (16.8%), and this percentage constantly falls when the quantity of members increases.  At the moment, the most numerous Jewish family has 11 members. The same phenomenon is repeated among  Russian Orthodox and Catholic  families. Among Orthodox Russian highest percentage of families has 2 members (16.7%.) The most numerous family has 10 members. Among Catholics the family with 2 members is of 17.5%. In these quantities transitory inhabitants are not included, that would increase the quantity of the first item.

 

2          Houses

 

Pruzhany's downtown is constituted by 4 important streets: Dabrowskiego, Brisker, Kobriner and Dr. Pacevitz. (the current name of this street is Neguidish) Here is also commercial center. 

 

Jewish population in it's majority is concentrated on downtown, and especially in adjacent back streets. The non Jew population is concentrated on the outskirts. This way, exist in the city some 6 back streets that are only inhabited by Jews, and 3 of back streets around the city don't have Jewish inhabitants.

 

In year 1931 Pruzhany had 1252 houses, of them 729 whose owners were Jews, and 523 non Jews. In proportion to population, Jews have higher percentage of houses that non Jews. The quantity of Jewish houses reaches to 58.2%, while population - as we already said- is 55.2%. Table Nş 11 gives a panorama about grow of quantity of houses during last 60 years. 

 

As we appreciate in the Table, the quantity of houses grew from 594 up to 1252, that is to say it increased 2.1 times, and in the same time the population increased 1.9 times. This means that in general, the density of population's housings diminished. This is also clear in the Table Nş 11.

 

Tabla Nş 11

 

Amount of houses and population density

during years 1873/ 1921/ 1931

 

Year

Jews

Non Jews

Totals

Houses

Persons/ house

Houses

Persons/ house

Houses

Persons/ house

1873

Absolute

300

8.6

294

5.7

594

6.7

%

50.5

49.5

 

100.0

 

1921

Absolute

 

 

 

 

984

6.4

%

100.0

1931

Absolute

729

5.9

523

6.3

1252

6.1

%

58.2

41.8

100.0

Growth (times)

2.4

 

1.7

 

2.1

 

 

In 1873 average was 6.7 habitants per house. In year 1921 was 6.4 and in year only 6.1.[ix]

 

Very different is housing density reduction between 1873 and 1931[x] in each group when considerate by separate. In 1873  Jews had the highest density (8.6), and in 1931 the smallest density (5.9). This is clearer when is compared  percentage of houses of  years  1873 and 1931.  In year 1873 Jews had 50.5% of houses total quantity and in year 1931 had 58.2%.

 

Percentage of non Jews population's density is different. In year 1873 it had an average of 5.7 inhabitants in each home, and in year 1931 was 6.3[xi]. It is interesting to compare density of Jewish population's housings in special neighborhoods. The highest density was in back streets, and the lower in commercial center. The lowest density of Jewish population was on Dr. Pacevicz St. (here it reaches to 3.6 inhabitants in each house); similar is the situation on the May 3 St. (here the density is of 5 people in each house)[xii] 

 

Most populated back streets are around  "yards". Genshe back street has a density of 6.8 inhabitants in each house. Bodgas St. had a density of 6.7, and other were still more populated; Brunim St. (8.2),  Blote St. (7),  Brisker St. (7.5), Vasergasse St. (7.4) and Shereshev St. (6.4).

 

3.                  Economic activity

 

Jews

 

Table 12 gives a precise picture of diverse economic activities that  were  sustenance of Pruzhany's Jews.

 

Table Nş 12

 

Jews economic activity in Pruzhany during year 1931

 

Activity

Amount of families living of the activity

%

Craftsmen

461

32.7

Doesn't declare activity[xiii]

387

27.5

Trade and industry

328

23.2

Liberal profession

76

5.4

Black work and transport

64

4.5

Rural work

46

3.4

Religious work

23

1.6

Others

24

1.7

Total

           1412

100.0

 

The quantity of families that mentioned they lived of their craft reached to 461, that is to say 32.7%  or a third part of whole Jewish population.

 

In second place are 387 families that don't mention their occupation, which is a very numerous group. Not all those included in this item don't have really an occupation. Several groups of families live of small trade, and these didn't reported their occupation. In this group  are also included families that receive help from their children's that live in distant countries. These are quite numerous. As we already said in Table Nş 12, all 18 year-old youths that collaborate in their  homes are included here and they didn't reported any other occupation[xiv].  For that reason when we observe the two main groups of Jewish workers of Pruzhany - the active economically and the passive economically -, the group without occupation should be distributed among those economic active and passive, for causes up mentioned.

 

Third category according to size, are families that live of trade and industry, and they are 328 families, that is to say 23.2%. Pruzhany doesn't have any important industry.  Except for the sawmill, mills, and oil manufactures  were not other industries. Most of families of this item is devoted to trade. Big trade occupies a small place. Most of  families that appear in this item were in charge of small scale trade, in local markets and in fair days. 

 

Were 76 families that lived of liberal professions. Here are included school teachers, private teachers, MD's, engineers, lawyers, and public and private officials.

 

A great quantity of families lives of "black work" and transport. These are young people that because of wars were not able to learn a craft. Rich people were overturned to trade.  Another group that would have an occupation in normal times, are in summer in charge of casual works as painters, gardeners and other seasonal works. 

 

A separated chapter are rural workers in Pruzhany. According to the mentioned chart, work the earth 49 families, but not all they are devoted in the same way and not all obtain their sustenance of working the earth. In this quantity of families are dairies that don't only lease the earth but they also rent certain agricultural instruments. Another group is cheese makers that send big quantities to Congres, Poland. Among those mentioned as working the earth, there were some that had big parcels of lands in the near towns of Sementshy and Shubitsh. 

 

Those that were devoted to production of religious articles  were in whole population's the 1.6%, Here are also beadles of religious study academies (batei midrashim), religious teachers and  butchers (shochtim), if they declared their service as their only occupation.

 

Of up mentioned, is clear that great part of Pruzhany Jewish population  lives of productive activities, if we add families that were in charge of an occupation, free professions and "black work", transport and rural tasks These are 650 Jewish families that is to say the whole Jewish population's 48%, which  were in charge of productive tasks. We have to add a quantity of families "without occupation", and those children that have an occupation and maintain their parents. Of here we deduce that more than half of Jewish population is in charge of productive works. [xv]

 

Table Nş 13

 

Amount of families living of various crafts among Jewish workers

 

Craft

Amount of

 families

%

% of Jewish

population

Tailor

108

23.4

7.7

Shoemaker

85

18.4

6.0

Butcher

45

9.7

3.2

Carpenter

32

6.9

2.2

Blacksmith

26

5.6

1.9

Locksmith/

tinsmith

17

3.7

1.3

Baker

16

3.4

1.2

Pintor

15

3.2

1.1

Wood worker

14

3.0

0.9

Hair dresser

14

3.0

0.9

Technician

11

2.3

0.8

Hats maker

11

2.3

0.8

Bricklayer

11

2.3

0.8

All other

56

12.8

3.9

Total

461

100.0

32.7

 

 

It is interesting to highlight which are most popular occupations in Pruzhany. In first place are tailors (108 families, 23.4% of whole quantity of occupations, that is to say 7,7% of  whole Jewish population), and then shoemakers (85 families, that are 18.4%).  

 

Non Jews and comparisons

 

We observe another specialization in Catholic and Orthodox Russian population . Catholic population has the highest percentage in liberal crafts (182 families, 40.7%), in second place those ¨without craft ¨ (21.6%), then crafts (14.7%), rural tasks (11%,) and  "black work" (4%)

 

Table Nş 14

 

Occupation of catholic population

 

Activity

Amount of families living of the activity

% of catholic families

Crafts

66

14.7

Doesn't declare activity

97

21.6

Trade

18

4.0

Liberal profession

182

40.7

Black work

18

4.0

Rural work

51

11.3

Religious work

7

1.5

Other

10

2.2

Total

450

100.0

 

 

In Orthodox Russian conformation is different: highest percentage is rural (208 families, that is to say 34.7%), without occupations (16.7%), black work (10.5%) and liberal work 8.7%.

 

Table Nş 15

 

Occupation of Orthodox Russian population in year 1931

 

Activity

Amount of families living of the activity

% of families

Crafts

100

16.7

Doesn't declare activity

157

26.2

Trade

7

1.2

Liberal profession

52

6.7

Black work

63

10.5

Rural work

208

34.7

Religious work

9

1.4

Other

4

0.6

Total

599

100

 

Of mentioned Tables regarding different occupations among  Jews, Catholic and Russian orthodox it is seen that social structure of each group is different. If we compare which are most important occupations in three religious groups, we see the following percentages: with specialized works are among the Jews 32.7%, among Catholics 14.7%, and among Russian Orthodox 16.7%. The greater percentage of specialized occupations among  Jews, gives a special coloring to the general panorama in Jewish population's economic sustenance.

 

Table Nş 16

 

Comparison of type of occupation among Jews,

Orthodox Russian and Catholics in percentage

(economic structure)

 

Activity

Jews

Orthodox Russian

Catholics

Crafts

32.7

16.7

14.7

Doesn't declare activity

27.5

26.2

21.6

Trade

23.2

1.2

4.0

Liberal profession

5.4

8.7

40.7

Black work

4.5

10.5

4.0

Rural work

3.4

34.7

11.3

Religious work

1.6

1.4

1.5

Other

1.7

0.6

2.2

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

 

 

In Pruzhany was registered in Community (Kahal)  Pinkas that Head of Jewish community  was during much time a tailor, Iser Froimchik. The distribution according to occupations in  Jewish population, was shown in Table 13.  A  different occupations specialization happened among  Orthodox Russian and Catholic (Tables 17 and 18).  Among Jews highest craftsmen percentage are tailors and shoemakers. Among Orthodox Russian  shoemakers (25%), technical workers (22%) and carpenters (16%).  Butchers were high among Catholics (18.2%), then shoemakers and locksmiths..

 

It is characteristic the great quantity of technical workers among Orthodox Russian. These were mostly car drivers, machinists, sawmills workers, etc.  The highest quantity is the category of "does not declare activity", as we see in Table 16. Among  Jews the difference is not very big, but in fact the difference is much bigger. Under the item "does not declare activity" are all those that answered "domestic works". Among non Jew population this conformed the highest families quantity.

 

Table Nş 17

 

Amount of  Russian Orthodox families living from crafts

 

Craft

Amount of families

%

Tailor

8

8

Shoemaker

25

25

Butcher

5

5

Carpenter

16

16

Blacksmith

5

5

Locksmith/

Tinsmith

10

10

Technician

22

22

All other

9

9

Total

100

100

 

 

Table Nş 18

 

Amount of  Catholic families living from crafts

 

Craft

Amount of families

%

Tailor

5

7.6

Shoemaker

8

12.1

Butcher

12

18.2

Carpenter

7

10.6

Blacksmith

7

10.6

Locksmith/

Tinsmith

8

12.1

Technician

6

9.1

All other

13

19.7

Total

66

100

 

 

Among non Jew population, most are families that live of products of their vegetable garden,  have a cow, a small calf, or they work out for others. Among Jews this percentage is much smaller. 

 

It exists a great difference in families devoted to trade among Jewish population, in relation to non Jews. The relationship is the following: 23.2 to 1.2 to 4.0.  Orthodox Russian are largely in charge of rural tasks (34.7%), and less Catholics that are 11.3%.  

 

4.         Social mobility

 

We don't have any information that clarifies with certainty the division in previous times of  Pruzhany's population  among "without craft" and "various crafts", . This would have given a measure of Jewish population's ascent in socioeconomic structure that could happen in course of that time.

 

We should remember that social ascent here happens in a very weak rhythm. This is because  Jewish population's growth that could introduce modifications with regard to sustenance, emigrates of the city.  Even in the frame of  Jewish population's constant volume here, it also happens this ascent process

 

In which address goes the process? Table 19  will give us a panorama of it. They were devoted to trade 40 children of 100 parents merchants, great part to their own business. Of them, 30 children were devoted to liberal professions; here enter in their majority students of high schools. A percentage of the 30 children devoted finally to liberal professions, and other overturned to trade while 16 children are in charge of crafts and 14 with various tasks and or without occupation. 

 

Very different it is the conformation according to occupations, among youths whose parents are workers. On 100 youths, 67 are workers, 17 have liberal profession, 3 are merchants and 17 ¨ without occupation and others.

 

Table Nş 19[xvi]

 

Occupations of fathers and sons

(occupational mobility)

 

Sons

Of each 100 fathers worked in

Trade

Crafts

Various

Trade

40

3

-

Crafts

16

67

64

Liberal

30

17

11

Various

14

13

25

Total

100

100

100

 

 

Of 100 parents that have diverse occupations, 64 children are craftsmen, 11 are liberal professionals and 25 are of various occupation (Table 19). If we take the three items,  we see that in total of 300 children whose parents were in charge of trade, crafts and other occupations, 147 children were devoted to crafts, 58 to liberal work, 43 to trade, and 52 to different works and to the category of "without work" These quantities shows us the address of the process that happens at this moment in our city. Is a  truth that is difficult to predict if all those that nowadays are in charge of craft will follow it in the future, but the percentage will be high.

 

Pruzhany - according to it's situation - it is an intermediate city. Not having factories and not even  middle size industry, economic life of the city depends on the buyer of the own town. Mondays and Thursdays they are carried out popular fairs, and in other occasions livestock fairs are made. 

 

For this days of fair everybody gets ready, so the merchant that will carry out his best sales, as those that are devoted to crafts that try to finish their merchandise for fair days or they wait new orders. For lack of industry there are few journeymen, and most of they are young.  



[i] During 1916 were 182 deaths, 119 in 1.917, and 205 in 1919, when in normal times, as was already mentioned before, it were 41 deaths per year

[ii] In census, among other, were two items: religion and nationality. In connection with the question of religion 4152  answered " Jews " , while as for nationality figures that in Pruzhany were only 1202 Jews. The other 1207 Jews were added to Poles, and for this reason this part of nationality gave a curious result.

[iii] More certainty on that time statistic, will be found it in chapter "Pruzhany in second half of XIX century" by N. Tzukerman.

[iv] We include in this quantity maids and journeymen, which were added in 1921 census to total quantity

[v] It means not by census.

[vi] We could not get data about  quantity of births and deaths in Russian Orthodox and Catholic populations.

[vii] To all this issues we should add the higher mortality rate in men than in women. While  male who died are 114, dead women are 94.

[viii] Even they were single and lived with parents

[ix]  We give figures with decimals, as difference in not too high.

[x]   We do not have information from 1921 census to obtain conclusions on amount of owners subdivided by religion.

[xi] In quantity of Jews houses are included study academies  (batei midrashim), and among  non Jews are the churches. This influences on the general reduction of the density, especially among Jews that had great quantity of study academies, synagogues, houses for social help, etc.

[xii] The following quantities don't give a precise measure on those that inhabit each area. For example, in newer back streets, where buildings are bigger, these can be inhabited by more families, In  statistic will figure that back streets are the less inhabited one, and in fact it is not so. On the contrary in the "yards"  lived poor Jews and density was bigger. Many times, the whole house was a single room, (including a kitchen). For that reason we should be attentive, since we don't have a real knowledge of  social life in each area. 

[xiii] In this item are registered those without work, those that having work declared that they didn't have it, women whose husbands had emigrated searching work in other places, as well as all those that being 18 years old are legally a separate family and don't have work. 

[xiv] Summary in this item will be different from quantities that were gathered during census of December 9, 1931. The cause is that municipality informative bulletins, were not real when reporting on income source.

[xv] Will be interesting to remember the material presented by the expert in statistic and economist Yacob Leshchinsky in his work "The development of  Jewish people in last hundred years" (Economy writings  - IWO). According to Table 14 page 26 which includes a half of Jews  all over the world, we observe that Jewish population's  sustenance has same division like in Pruzhany. Difference is only observed in some items. There we see that occupation of Jews in general was (in percentages): 

 Rural works                            5.5 

Industry and occupations       32.8 

Trade and transports               41.9 

Employees and  

liberal professions                     6.1 

Black work                                1.6 

Other and without occupation 13.1 

Here, productive elements as  transport subtracted trade, and added to the other productive elements, form half of Jewish population. 

[xvi] Material of this Table was obtained by M. Pruzansky